Only facts about epidemics and pandemics

About FactDemic


After all the confusion over what reports are true and which are not during the current coronovirus pandemic, this free multilingual public health educational site was created to help bring the leading "fact-based" online resources and their latest information on currrent and future epidemics & pandemics into one source - by MOOCs.University -

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(In Alphabetical Order):












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- Boston




























New Hampshire




New Jersey

New Mexico




New York:



Coronavirus Hotline: 






Emotional Support Hotline


(Free Help):


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Only facts about epidemics and pandemics

About FactDemic


After all the confusion over what reports are true and which are not during the current coronovirus pandemic, this free multilingual public health educational site was created to help bring the leading "fact-based" online resources and their latest information on currrent and future epidemics & pandemics into one source - by MOOCs.University -


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Only facts about epidemics and pandemics

About FactDemic


After all the confusion over what reports are true and which are not during the current coronovirus pandemic, this free multilingual public health educational site was created to help bring the leading "fact-based" online resources and their latest information on currrent and future epidemics & pandemics into one source - - by MOOCs.University -

Latest Information


on COVID 19


Vaccine & Treatments


Research / Trials




July 2020



Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker





"Researchers around the world

are developing more than 165 vaccines

against the coronavirus, and

26 vaccines are in human trials.

Vaccines typically require years of research and

testing before reaching the clinic,

but scientists are racing to

produce a safe and effective vaccine

by next year.


At this New York Times link,

the status of all the vaccines

that have reached trials in humans,

along with a selection of promising vaccines

still being tested in cells or animals."

















COVID 19 Drugs & Vaccine Tracker







"Guide to some of the most talked-about efforts to

treat or prevent coronavirus infection,

with details on the science,

history, and timeline for each endeavor

(and we will update the tracker with any new developments).

We’re looking at novel medicines, not repurposed drugs.

The below therapies and vaccines are

sorted in order of how close they could be to approval, starting with a treatment in Phase 3 trials,

followed by others in Phase 1 studies and

then preclinical development.

Approval, of course, would only come

if they are proven safe and effective."












Covid-19 patients recovering quickly after getting experimental drug remdesivir


Covid-19 patients who are getting an experimental drug called remdesivir have been recovering quickly,

with most going home in days, STAT News reported Thursday after it obtained a video of a conversation about the trial.


The patients taking part in a clinical trial of the drug have all had severe respiratory symptoms and fever,

but were able to leave the hospital after less than a week of treatment, STAT quoted the doctor leading the trial as saying.


"The best news is that most of our patients have already been discharged, which is great.

We've only had two patients perish,"

Dr. Kathleen Mullane,

an infectious disease specialist at the University of Chicago

who is leading the clinical trial, said.











"F.D.A. Approves




Coronavirus Antibody Test


in U.S."



"Such a test may help scientists learn how widespread the infection is,


and how long people remain immune after recovering.


new test, by contrast, looks for protective antibodies in a finger prick of blood.


It tells doctors whether a patient has ever been exposed to the virus and now may have some immunity.


That is important for several reasons. People with immunity might be able to venture safely from their homes and help shore up the work force.


It may be particularly important for doctors and nurses to know whether they have antibodies."










"New York will be first state


to test treatment of coronavirus


with blood from


recovered patients...


Convalescent Plasma"



"The method dates back more than a century, but it has not been used widely in the United States in decades.


New York health officials plan to begin collecting plasma from


people who have recovered and


injecting the antibody-rich fluid into patients still fighting the virus.


The treatment, known as convalescent plasma,


dates back centuries and was used during the flu epidemic of 1918 —


in an era before modern vaccines and antiviral drugs"


"During the Spanish flu epidemic of 1918,


scientists reported that


transfusions of blood products obtained from survivors led


to a 50% drop in deaths


among severely ill patients.


A similar strategy was used to treat and slow the


spread of polio and measles outbreaks decades ago"









"Scientists Identify 69 Drugs to

Test Against the Coronavirus

Two dozen of the medicines are

already under investigation"



"Nearly 70 drugs and experimental compounds may be effective in treating the coronavirus,

a team of researchers reported on Sunday night.

Some of the medications are already used to treat other diseases, and

repurposing them to treat Covid-19, the illness caused by the coronavirus,

may be faster than trying to invent a new antiviral from scratch, the scientists said"









"New York To Begin Clinical Trials

For Coronavirus Treatment Tuesday,

Cuomo Says"


"Food and Drug Administration approved one of the drugs for clinical trials,

as New York becomes the epicenter for the pandemic in the U.S.

During a Sunday press briefing, Cuomo said

750,000 doses of chloroquine,

70,000 doses of hydroxychloroquine and

10,000 doses of Zithromax were acquired by New York state for the trial.

Chloroquine (an anti-malaria drug) and hydroxychloroquine (used for lupus and arthritis)

were approved by the FDA for clinical trials as possible coronavirus treatments,

while Zithromax is a brand-name antibiotic"








"French study finds

anti-malarial and antibiotic combo

could reduce COVID-19 duration"





A new study whose results were published in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

has found early evidence that the combination

of hydroxychloroquine, a popular anti-malaria drug known under the trade name Plaqenuil, and

antibiotic azithromycin (aka Zithromax or Azithrocin)

could be especially effective in treating the COVID-19 coronavirus and reducing the duration of the virus in patients.


The researchers performed a study on 30 confirmed COVID-19 patients,

treating each with either hydroxychloroquine on its own,

a combination of the medicine with the antibiotic,

as well as a control group that received neither.

The study was conducted after reports from treatment of Chinese patients

indicated that this particular combo had efficacy in shortening the duration of infection in patients.










"Drug currently used as an antimalarial

-- hydroxychloroquine --

would be made available almost immediately

to treat coronavirus"



"Early evidence from human cells suggests that chloroquine --

which is used to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases --

may have some activity against the novel coronavirus.

Doctors in China, the US and other countries have used the drug experimentally in

Covid-19 patients, but there is not yet sufficient clinical evidence that it's effective in humans.

The drug, generally considered to be safe for most patients, can have side effects including

seizures, nausea, vomiting, deafness, vision changes and low blood pressure"









"Here are 3 drugs in development

to fight coronavirus,

2 vaccines and one 'passive' vaccine

Many companies are working on vaccines,

but these are the 3 that experts say

are closest to being tested,

approved and available to

the U.S. public"



Moderna's mRNA-1273


"Moderna Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, has already begun Phase I human testing

of its mRNA-1273 at Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute in Seattle.

The test has enrolled 45 healthy adults ages 18 to 55. Phase I will continue over the next six weeks.

The vaccine was developed using part of the genetic sequence from COVID-19 called mRNA, or messenger RNA.

Traditional vaccines use the virus itself; Moderna's mRNA-1273 works off a sequence of the virus' genetic code, instead.

The vaccine is designed to direct the body's cells to produce an antibody — a virus-fighting protein — and spur a robust immune response. It has already shown promise in tests on animals.

Phase I of testing looks at the vaccine's safety and whether it is producing an immune response.

A later phase of research will look at whether the vaccine is effective in preventing infection.

Subjects get an injection on days 1 and 29 and will be followed for 12 months after the second injection.





Regeneron's REGN3048-3051


Regeneron Pharmaceuticals of Tarrytown, New York, is working on an antibody treatment that uses the virus itself.

The company genetically modifies mice to have human immune systems and

then exposes them to part of the virus. The mice then build up antibodies to fight the virus.

Scientists have isolated the antibodies, as well as antibodies from humans who have recovered from COVID-19, and

they will select the top two antibodies to create a cocktail that is injected in the patient.

The two antibodies will target different parts of the virus and may help protect against multiple viral variants.

In theory, that means the drug could still be effective if the virus mutates.


Regeneron's drug could be used as a treatment for those who are already infected,

but according to the company it could also be used as

a preventive measure for the healthy, like a vaccine.

Such drugs are sometimes referred to as "passive" vaccines.





Inovio's INO-4800


Inovio Pharmaceuticals of Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania,

is using an approach similar to Moderna's to develop a vaccine by modeling off the virus' sequence.

Three hours after China published the sequence of the virus online, Inovio developed INO-4800.

Inovio uses something called DNA medicine, which is made up of optimized DNA plasmids.

These are small circles of double-stranded DNA that are reorganized by a computer-sequencing technology and

designed to produce a specific immune response in the body.

Inovio delivers the optimized plasmids directly into the cells,

where they begin replicating and strengthening the body's natural response mechanisms"










"Coronavirus treatment:

Vaccines/drugs in the pipeline for Covid-19"




the first approved coronavirus drug in China

The National Medical Products Administration of China has approved the use of Favilavir,

an anti-viral drug, as a treatment for coronavirus.

The drug has reportedly shown efficacy in treating the disease with

minimal side effects in a clinical trial involving 70 patients.

The clinical trial is being conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong province"




Remdesivir (GS-5734)


An ebola drug developed by Gilead Sciences

that was found to be ineffective is now being tested in two phase III randomised clinical trials in Asian countries.

The trials are being performed on 761 patients in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study at

multiple hospitals in Wuhan, the epicentre of the novel coronavirus outbreak.

The results from the trials are expected to be available over the next few weeks.

According to a report by The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM),

remdesivir, when administered to a coronavirus patient in the US, appeared to have improved the clinical condition.

The University of Nebraska Medical Center is also carrying out clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of the drug.

The first patient to be administered the drug is an evacuee from the Diamond Princess cruise ship.







by Roche to treat coronavirus-related complications

China approved the use of Roche’s Actemra for the treatment of severe complications related to coronavirus.

Drugs like Actemra have the ability to prevent cytokine storms or overreaction of the immune system,

which is considered as the main reason behind organ failure leading to death in some coronavirus patients.

Actemra is also being evaluated in a clinical trial in China, which is expected to enroll 188 coronavirus patients.

The clinical trial is expected to be conducted until May 10.

















"NIH clinical trial of

investigational vaccine for COVID-19



Study enrolling Seattle-based healthy adult volunteers.



The vaccine is called mRNA-1273 and

was developed by NIAID scientists and

their collaborators at the biotechnology company Moderna, Inc., based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.


The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI)

supported the manufacturing of the vaccine candidate for the Phase 1 clinical trial.


“Finding a safe and effective vaccine to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 is an urgent public health priority,” said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.


“This Phase 1 study, launched in record speed,

is an important first step toward achieving that goal.”

























Mystery Inflammatory Syndrome In

Kids And Teens

Likely Linked To COVID-19


"Sixty-four children and teens in New York State are suspected of having a mysterious inflammatory syndrome that is


believed to be linked to COVID-19, the New York Department of Health said in an alert issued Wednesday.


A growing number of similar cases — including at least one death — have been reported in other parts of the U.S. and Europe,


though the phenomenon is still not well-understood.


Pediatricians say parents should not panic; the condition remains extremely rare.


But researchers also are taking a close look at this emerging syndrome, and say


parents should be on the lookout for symptoms in their kids that might warrant a quick call to the doctor —


a persistent high fever over several days and significant abdominal pains with repeated vomiting,


after which the child does not feel better."







For sickest patients,

blood thinners may be linked to

reduced COVID-19 deaths, study finds



"Faced with an increased risk of blood clots, patients with the coronavirus may benefit from blood thinning medications.


Blood thinners may help keep COVID-19 patients on ventilators alive longer, a study published Wednesday suggests.


In recent weeks, physicians have noticed that the sickest coronavirus patients are more prone to forming blood clots —


an unexpected symptom for a respiratory virus."









CDC Adds 6 Symptoms To Its COVID-19 List



The CDC has long said said that fever, cough and shortness of breath are indications that

someone might have the disease caused by the novel coronavirus.

It has now added six more conditions that may come with the disease:


repeated shaking with chills,

muscle pain,


sore throat and

new loss of taste or smell.


The symptoms usually appear within two to 14 days after exposure to the virus, the CDC says.

It stresses the "emergency warning signs" for COVID-19 are
trouble breathing,

persistent pain or pressure in the chest,

confusion or inability to arouse. and

bluish lips or face.

People with any of these symptoms should seek medical attention immediately, the CDC says."








Skin Rashes May Be Symptom of Coronavirus,

Scientists Say



"Coronavirus symptoms may include skin problems, such as rashes and so-called "COVID toes," experts believe.


One small study in Italy found 20 percent of COVID-19 patients had skin problems,


while anecdotal evidence from other countries indicates a link between dermatological problems and the virus.


Patients developed skin complaints when their COVID-19 symptoms started, and 10 after they were hospitalized.


14 patients had a red rash,


three had hives, and


one had chickenpox-like blisters.


The torso was the most affected area, the team said, and the lesions usually healed in a few days.


These issues did not seem to correspond to how sick the patients were, according to the letter"










Young and middle-aged people,

barely sick with covid-19,

are dying of strokes


"Doctors sound alarm about patients in their 30s and 40s left debilitated or dead.


Some didn’t even know they were infected.


Reports of strokes in the young and middle-aged — not just at Mount Sinai,


but also in many other hospitals in communities hit hard by the novel coronavirus —


are the latest twist in our evolving understanding of the disease it causes.


The numbers of those affected are small but nonetheless remarkable


because they challenge how doctors understand the virus"









COVID-19 may be most contagious

one to two days

before symptoms appear

More than 4 in 10 coronavirus cases

are spread by those not obviously sick,

a study suggests


"People with coronavirus infections may be most contagious


one to two days before they start to feel ill, new research suggests.


What’s more, considering pairs of people


in which one person definitely caught the coronavirus from the other,


scientists estimate that about 44 percent of COVID-19 cases


may spread from person to person before symptoms appear"









Why Some COVID-19 Patients Crash:


The Body's Immune System


Might Be To Blame...


"Cytokine Storm"



"A recent study by Bhatraju and others found that the patients' lungs appeared to deteriorate quickly.


The crash typically happens seven days into the disease and can occur in young, otherwise healthy victims of COVID-19.


Now doctors and researchers are increasingly convinced that, in some cases at least,


the cause is the body's own immune system overreacting to the virus.


The problem, known broadly as a "cytokine storm,"


can happen when the immune system triggers a runaway response that


causes more damage to its own cells than to the invader it's trying to fight"










"WHO says


the coronavirus can


spread 1 to 3 days


before symptoms start"



"The coronavirus can spread about one to three days before symptom


 start, a top medical official of the World Health Organization said.


Whether the person is symptomatic or presymptomatic,


the disease is still spread in the same way — through droplets from the nose and mouth,


said the official, Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove,


the WHO’s team lead on the coronavirus"










"Muscle aches, extreme fatigue:


Coronavirus symptoms


go beyond fever and cough"



"Many patients who've either tested positive for the coronavirus, or have been told by their physicians to assume they have it,

also develop a headache and sore throat.


Others become sick to their stomach with nausea or diarrhea.


Some patients say they have no interest in eating.


Many report they're losing their senses of taste and smell, the British Rhinological Society said recently.


Just this week, a small study published in JAMA Ophthalmology added another potential COVID-19 warning sign:


pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis.


A third of the 38 patients in the report had the inflammatory eye condition.


But it's also becoming more clear that some


infected people spreading the virus don't have any symptoms at all."










"The American Academy of Ophthalmology


sent an alert to its members


Sunday evening that there are reports


Covid-19 can lead to conjunctivitis --


which can lead to a


reddening of and


around the eyes"


American Academy of Ophthalmology:


But for her and her colleagues at the Life Care Center and admitting doctors at a nearby hospital,


the eyes became a sign that coronavirus had struck, she told CNN.


"We've had patients that just had the red eyes as the only symptom that we saw and


go to the hospital and pass away," she said.


"I've even had the disaster medical control physician say,


'Do they have the red eyes?' And I will say yes.


And he'll say, 'I'll find you a bed.' It's just something about this,


the way that it affects these patients."










"American Red Cross


now faces


a severe blood shortage


during this coronavirus outbreak"


Find Local Blood Drive

Near You

By Zipcode:



"The American Red Cross now faces a severe blood shortage


due to an unprecedented number of blood drive cancellations during this coronavirus outbreak. 


Healthy individuals are needed to donate now to help patients counting on lifesaving blood.


Donating blood is a safe process and people should not hesitate to give or receive blood. 


Watch this


Video (


on the safety and need for blood donations.  


Right now, eligible and healthy donors are strongly urged to make an appointment to give soon. 


But please postpone your donation for 28 days following travel to China and


its special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as Iran, Italy and South Korea, or


if you’ve been diagnosed with or have had contact with anyone with a suspected or confirmed case of COVID-19"










"Doctors say


loss of sense of


smell and taste


might be


Covid-19 symptom"


American Academy of Otolaryngology:



Doctors in the United States on Sunday called for

the loss of sense of smell and taste to

be added to the "list of screening tools" for Covid-19.

The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery said

symptoms of anosmia, or lack of sense of smell, and dysgeusia, or lack of taste,

should be used to identify possible Covid-19 infections"










"Why is the coronavirus


so much more deadly


for men


than for women?"



"Men are faring worse than women in the coronavirus pandemic,

according to statistics emerging from across the world.

On Friday, White House COVID-19 Task Force director Dr. Deborah Birx cited a

report from Italy showing that men in nearly every age bracket

were dying at higher rates than women. Birx called it a “concerning trend.”

The apparent gender gap in Italy echoes earlier statistics from other hard-hit countries.

While preliminary, early accounts have suggested that boys and men are more likely to become seriously ill

than are girls and women, and that men are more likely to die"












"About Half of COVID-19 Cases Show


Digestive Signs"




"Diarrhea and other digestive symptoms

are the main complaint in nearly half of coronavirus patients,

Chinese researchers report.


Most patients with the coronavirus have respiratory symptoms,

but these findings from the early stages of the outbreak show

that digestive problems are prevalent in many patients with COVID-19.


"Clinicians must bear in mind that digestive symptoms, such as diarrhea,

may be a presenting feature of COVID-19, and that

the index of suspicion may need to be raised earlier in these cases

rather than waiting for respiratory symptoms to emerge,"

wrote the investigators from the Wuhan Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19"










"How smoking,


vaping and


drug use


might increase


risks from Covid-19"


COVID-19: Potential Implications for Individuals with Substance Use Disorders


Because it attacks the lungs,

the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 could be an especially serious threat to those

who smoke tobacco or marijuana or who vape.

People with opioid use disorder (OUD) and methamphetamine use disorder may also be vulnerable

due to those drugs’ effects on respiratory and pulmonary health. 

Additionally, individuals with a substance use disorder are more likely to experience homelessness or

incarceration than those in the general population, and

these circumstances pose unique challenges regarding transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19









"Younger Adults

Make Up Big Portion of

Coronavirus Hospitalizations in U.S."



New C.D.C. data shows that nearly 40% of patients sick enough to be hospitalized

were age 20 to 54.

But the risk of dying was significantly higher in older people.

Of the 508 patients known to have been hospitalized,

38 percent were notably younger — between 20 and 54.

And nearly half of the 121 patients who were admitted to intensive care units

were adults under 65, the C.D.C. reported.

“I think everyone should be paying attention to this,”





National Institutes of Health



"New coronavirus stable for hours on surfaces

SARS-CoV-2 stability similar to original SARS virus"



The virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is

stable for several hours to days in aerosols and on surfaces,

according to a

new study from National Institutes of Health, CDC, UCLA and Princeton University scientists in The New England Journal of Medicine.


The scientists found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detectable


in aerosols for up to 3 hours,


up to 4 hours on copper,


up to 24 hours on cardboard and


up to 2 to 3 days on plastic and stainless steel.



The results provide key information about the stability of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19 disease, and suggests that:



People may acquire the virus through the air and


after touching contaminated objects.


The study information was widely shared during the past two weeks after the researchers placed the contents on a preprint server to quickly share their data with colleagues.


The NIH scientists, from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ Montana facility at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, compared how the environment affects SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1, which causes SARS. SARS-CoV-1, like its successor now circulating across the globe, emerged from China and infected more than 8,000 people in 2002 and 2003. SARS-CoV-1 was eradicated by intensive contact tracing and case isolation measures and no cases have been detected since 2004. SARS-CoV-1 is the human coronavirus most closely related to SARS-CoV-2. In the stability study the two viruses behaved similarly, which unfortunately fails to explain why COVID-19 has become a much larger outbreak.


The NIH study attempted to mimic virus being deposited from an infected person onto everyday surfaces in a household or hospital setting, such as through coughing or touching objects. The scientists then investigated how long the virus remained infectious on these surfaces.


The scientists highlighted additional observations from their study:


If the viability of the two coronaviruses is similar, why is SARS-CoV-2 resulting in more cases?


Emerging evidence suggests that


people infected with SARS-CoV-2 might be spreading virus


without recognizing, or prior to recognizing, symptoms.


This would make disease control measures that were effective against SARS-CoV-1 less effective against its successor.


In contrast to SARS-CoV-1, most secondary cases of virus transmission of SARS-CoV-2 appear to be occurring in community settings rather than healthcare settings.  However, healthcare settings are also vulnerable to the introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2, and the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols and on surfaces likely contributes to transmission of the virus in healthcare settings.


The findings affirm the guidance from public health professionals to use precautions similar to those for influenza and other respiratory viruses to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2:


Avoid close contact with people who are sick.


Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.


Stay home when you are sick.


Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.


Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe.